agriculture


agriculture
From Genesis (2:15) to Revelation (14:14–20) the Bible is dominated by farmers and their endless labour as they struggled to feed the Palestinian population despite droughts (Jer. 14:1–6), their main enemy, and pests and armed intruders. Nevertheless they did produce wheat, grapes, olives, and other crops and maintained herds of cattle and flocks of sheep. So vital was agriculture to the nation's survival that there were regulations governing it in the Law (Deut. 22:9–10) and there were three religious festivals (the feast of Weeks at the time of first fruits and the feast of Booths [[➝ booth]] (Tabernacles [[➝ Tabernacles, feast of]]) at the harvest of fruits, and Passover at the beginning of the corn harvest) associated with it. The processes of agriculture were frequently used in Jesus' parables. Ploughing was done after the autumn rains, and then the seed was sown by hand. Harvesting took place in the months April to June. Olives and grapes were gathered in the early autumn and this was marked by the feast of Tabernacles [[➝ Tabernacles, feast of]]. This originally agricultural festival was provided with a historical interpretation by the Holiness [[➝ holiness]] Code (Lev. 23:43) and was said to commemorate the Israelites' wanderings in the desert when they possessed no permanent houses. (But surely ‘booths’ of greenery in the wilderness stretches the historical imagination.) After threshing and winnowing the grain had to be stored (Luke 12:18) and the chaff could be burnt (Matt. 3:12). Flax was available for clothes.

Dictionary of the Bible.

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  • AGRICULTURE — Étymologiquement, agriculture signifie «culture des champs», le mot culture devant être pris dans le sens de «mise en condition». Il désigne, par extension, la production des biens et les conditions de vie en milieu rural: la culture du blé, de… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • agriculture — ag‧ri‧cul‧ture [ˈægrɪˌkʌltʆə ǁ ər] noun [uncountable] FARMING the practice or science of farming: • Agriculture accounts for over 25% of net domestic production. agricultural adjective : • sales of agricultural machinery exˌtensive ˈagriculture …   Financial and business terms

  • Agriculture —    Agriculture has been one of the most important means of subsistence since prehistoric times. During the Middle Ages, agriculture was mainly organized by large landowners, including monasteries, or by colonists who turned wastelands into… …   Historical Dictionary of the Netherlands

  • agriculture — AGRICULTURE. s. fém. L art de cultiver la terre. Cet homme aime l agriculture, entend bien l agriculture. Traité d agriculture …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française 1798

  • Agriculture —    Agriculture (most often associated with the kibbutz) has occupied a position of prominence in Israel and in Zionist ideology greater than its economic contribution has warranted. Its central place in Zionist ideology, dominant role in the… …   Historical Dictionary of Israel

  • Agriculture — Ag ri*cul ture (?; 135), n. [L. agricultura; ager field + cultura cultivation: cf. F. agriculture. See {Acre} and {Culture}.] The art or science of cultivating the ground, including the harvesting of crops, and the rearing and management of live… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • AGRICULTURE —    Agriculture formed the basis of the Mesopotamian economy. The first steps toward a managed production of cereals were taken as early as the 10th millennium B.C. in Syria, in the area known as the Fertile Crescent, which receives sufficient… …   Historical Dictionary of Mesopotamia

  • agriculture — AGRICULTURE: Une des mamelles de l État (l État est du genre masculin, mais ça ne fait rien). On devrait l encourager. Manque de bras …   Dictionnaire des idées reçues

  • agriculture — agriculture, sociology of See rural sociology …   Dictionary of sociology

  • agriculture — (n.) mid 15c., from L.L. agricultura cultivation of the land, compound of agri cultura cultivation of land, from agri, gen. of ager a field (see ACRE (Cf. acre)) + cultura cultivation (see CULTURE (Cf. culture)). In Old English, the idea was… …   Etymology dictionary

  • agriculture — *agrarian …   New Dictionary of Synonyms